Applying planning, the firm eliminates those costs which it could have if all actions in firm were made on the basis of purchase and sale. After all any trade (transaction) is accompanied by so-called transactional costs: costs of searches of the buyer and/or the seller negotiation about a subject of the transaction, fee of consultants, etc. Canceling the relations of purchase and sale, the enterprise eliminates additional expenses. Carrying out the administrative function connected with the strong-willed management and decision-making, the businessman is engaged in planning also in narrower sense as a kind of administrative activity.
It is possible to formulate the following rule of definition of costs of planning: any additional resources have to be spent only if they create a positive effect. And, besides, you should not undertake development of such plan which cost could equal costs of creation of the best plan.
It is about those scarce means which could be used for the solution of other important economic tasks. If to speak about non-monetary costs, planning demands one more major category of expenses - time expenses - also scarce and very limited resource.
The autonomy of divisions finds the expression in models which call plane and venture management. Merits of such models of management are called earlier, they are connected with high extent of adaptation to the changing environment. But at the same time ploskostny and venture (risky) managements create a number of problems, negative effects. For example:
Despite difficulties of implementation of planning in the small organization, it is necessary for it, perhaps, in a bigger measure, than large. Environment at such organization gives in to control less and is more aggressive, than the major company has, therefore, a future of small firm more vaguely and is unpredictable.
Still classics of management paid attention that absence of plans at the enterprise is followed by fluctuations wrong maneuvers, untimely change of orientation that is the reason of a bad condition of affairs if not their crash. As practice showed, application of planning creates the following important advantages:
The minimum result of planning is the prevention of gross blunders in economic activity, that is acquisition of abilities to expect unpleasant circumstances of the future and to eliminate them. If means which are spent for planning, led to such result, - it is already almost enough of it.
- the balance - purposeful coordination of the directions of use of resources with sources of their education (receipt) on all system of the interconnected material, financial and labor balances;
The concept planning of activity of firm makes two sense. The first - all-economic, from the point of view of the general theory of firm, its nature. The second - concrete and administrative. Here planning from management functions, ability to expect the future of acceptance and to use this anticipation. Both parties of planning are closely connected among themselves. Possibility of planning as concrete kind of activity follows from the nature of firm, directly is defined by the general conditions of managing. All material is a display of concrete ways and methods of planning as administrative function. But for serious understanding of sense of planning it is necessary to define both of its parties.
Again arisen private firms. Rough process of a of the capital led to increase and complication of activity of many of these firms, and also to emergence of other factors creating need for planning forms, adequate to a modern market economy. The main problem connected with application of planning in this sphere - the mistrust to formal planning based on opinion that business is an ability "to turn", correctly to be guided in the current situation, and from here even to not really long-term future Nevertheless many of major private firms began insufficient attention, to create divisions of planning or, at least, to enter the planner's position